Monday, February 12, 2007

Strategic Learning: Metacognition and Metamemory

This is your brain reflecting on the learning process and learning from its mistakes. Warm color areas are activated with positive feedback; the blue, with negative.

High level strategic learning often requires constant self-regulation and error monitoring strategies, metacognition (thinking about the thought processes), sometimes specific memory techniques (metamemory or conscious thinking about memory).

Strategic learning strategies such as these can be taught to children as young as 7 or 8 years old, but implementation and practice will be necessary to increase the likelihood that the skills and techniques will be applied to other learning situations.

If LD students pursue higher education, almost all of them will need some of these strategies if they are to survive demanding academic workloads.

Some of the most common metacognitive strategies include the following:

- organizing, condensing and rewriting notes to reduce the quantity of material that must be learned
- Note-taking with emphasis on key words /e.g. Cornell Notes

- repetition, studying by speaking outloud

Elaboration via Words or Pictures
- elaborating on information to be learned, conducting a dialogue with a book or lecture notes, drawing associations from previous knowledge, drawing analogies or contrasts, adding imagery
- translating information into other words, pictures, diagrams, symbols

- using memory tricks or mnemonics to recall details or sequences of information

Personal Memory
- working with a buddy or study partner
- personalizing information (e.g. what does that remind me of, do I agree?)

surveying, questioning, reading, reciting, and reviewing (Robinson)

- Self-observation, self-judgment, self-reaction

Most students who succeed in college have to work much longer than their classmates - studying for tests and writing for papers is often begun much sooner than non-LD classmates, and reduced courseloads may be necessary for some.

Compensation Strategies Used by High Ability Students with Learning Disabilities
Metamemory and Children - Teaching Memory Strategies
Learning Strategy Instruction pdf
Self-Regulated Learning
Error Monitoring and the Brain - fMRI pdf
Metacognitive Strategies for Math
Metacognitive Strategies Preparing for a Final Exam
Metacognition in Reading Analysis - Bilingual Learners

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