"What must he think of me!" - Elizabeth Bennet, Pride and Prejudice
In the figure below, researchers show us the difference between solitary self-reflection (what do I think about me) and reflected self-reflection (what do I think others will think about me).
Interesting to think about, and interesting for students, too...what sorts of things do we think about ourselves that would differ from what we think others would think about us.
The Nature of Metacognition article below talks more about social and emotional aspects of metacognition - including topics of interest re: learning disabilities.
With frustration or failure in the classroom, many students will find that their direct self-reflection becomes less, and reflected self-reflection becomes more, or in other words, their self-concept is swallowed up by thoughts of what they think others are thinking of them. One way to counter this, is with attributional training. Attributional training teaches students to recognize that successes or failures result more from effort or strategy, than luck or general ability.
Direct and Reflected Self-Reflection and fMRI
Philosophy Discussion Ideas for Children
The Nature of Metacognition
NEA - Teaching Reflective Thinking
Success of Attributional Training with Math Word Problems
Attributional Training for Teachers - Powerpoint