Here's a look into why some people are better at detecting rules or patterns than others. This study is a little different from other studies because it looks at the brain differences between people who figure out the rule, and those who don't.
The top row of images show frontal and parietal areas (R & L) that seem to be involved, but the bottom row shows an interesting area (blue), the caudate, that also was also especially active among efficient learners.
There is a growing literature suggesting that the caudate is important for category learning. This may be interesting for several groups of people because caudate abnormalities or asymmetries have been found in children diagnosed with ADHD or Tourettes, and adult Parkinson's disease.
Finding relative weak routes of learning can help us anticipate why certain types of learning are hard for particular students. But of course, more important will be the understanding of how specific blocks can be bypassed or overcome.
Unfortunately, at least today, there few neurobiologically-based research studies examining the effects of specific training or therapeutic interventions for children carrying ADHD or other LD diagnoses. There are more studies for adults who suffer conditions like Parkinson's disease or amnesia.
Rule-Based Category Learning
Caudate and Classification Abstract Only
Caudate Asymmetry and ADHD Abstract only
Category Learning in Parkinson's Disease